Pastos en los Cárpatos
[tab name=’Visión de conjunto’]
Las ovejas y pastos vaca fue durante siglos la parte más importante de la economía Hutsul. Además, se había cambiado el paisaje de la tierra Hutsul. Desde el principio, el paisaje se había transformado en la alimentación animal. Los inmigrantes Walakhian primeros residía en las montañas durante el verano y se trasladó a los valles de invierno. Se había operado en los prados Alp típicos en Chornohora y las montañas Marmaroski. Luego, le cortaron y quemaron el bosque y los pastos ampliada para arruinó el ambiente alpino natural. El Walakhians había socializado con las naciones eslavas del este al norte y se asentaron en las colinas, donde su economía había crecido. La madera del bosque fue utilizado en muchas marcas de las aplicaciones. Se utilizó como material de construcción, y en la producción de bienes, así como para el calentamiento. Posteriormente, las partes más altas de las montañas normalmente con el bosque se había transformado en los claros.
Es difícil estimar cómo muchos rebaños pastaban durante el mayor crecimiento de la economía, que se observó hasta mediados del siglo 19. Algunos creen que el número de 600-700 ovejas era la típica de un rebaño. Se estima que el número de alrededor de 200 mil ovejas por toda la tierra Hutsul. No sólo las ovejas, sino también las cabras y los cerdos y las vacas estaban creciendo en los claros. Hoy en día, un número de ovejas es de aproximadamente 30 mil. Casi nunca las cabras y los cerdos se pueden encontrar. Sobre todo hay cerdos blancos que crecen en la pocilga en las granjas de los valles. En el pasado, estaban los cerdos de la raza Walakhian, que podría haber sido lo suficientemente fuerte para vivir en los claros. Además, el ganado vacuno se cría. Normalmente, las vacas y los bueyes se criaban. Las vacas se encuentran hoy en el Chornohora occidental y los bueyes son típicos de las montañas Chyvchynski. Los rebaños mixtos se pueden encontrar en Svydovets o Kukula. La cría de una raza única de la Huculih0 era muy popular allí. Una vista de la manada de los caballos Hutsul era característico. Fueron utilizados comúnmente por los pastores. Dicen que “donde está un Hutsul debe haber un caballo”. En este momento los rebaños de caballos se pueden encontrar pero que no son los caballos de carreras Hutsul.
La organización de la pastura estacional hecho por el arrendador o el arrendatario del claro. Cuando el claro era propiedad de la comunidad local había un delegado del consejo (silska rada), quien ejecutó la tarea. Los propietarios de animales de rebaños creado comunes que pagan una cuota y tiene los productos lácteos, principalmente queso y la mantequilla. Tradicionalmente, la producción estuvo a cargo de vatag, que residía en el claro. Hay varias marcas de queso elaborado con leche de oveja y vacas en los claros. La grasa formada en barriles de madera (putyny) fue llamado syr. La parte restante llamado dzer fue utilizado para hacer de cobre o de acero hervidores un vurda. Syr y vurda fueron drenados (budz) y posteriormente mezclarse en ciertas cantidades para producir diferentes tipos de brynza. Otro producto lácteo típico de los claros fue una mantequilla hecha en barricas de llamadas berbenytsya. En la actualidad, el único syr y vurda se hacen ya veces sólo leche y crema son entregados a los pueblos.
Los dueños de los animales tenían sus rebaños incluso unos 150 km de distancia de sus hogares: Kolomyya, Snyatyn o Soroky. Y ahora, los Hutsuls de Kosiv tienen sus rebaños en el Chornohora del Este.
Los pastores viven en los claros durante 3 – 4 meses al año. El comienzo de la temporada fue un día muy especial en el pueblo Hutsul. Pidió Polonynsky Khid. Había cantando las canciones y la oración que conduce a la manada a los claros. Más tarde, los soviéticos cambiaron el nombre de ese día para Provody na polonynu (Entrada en los prados). La tradición está estrictamente unido a la fiesta de un acebo George el 6 de mayo y el verano St Nicolas fiesta el 22 de mayo. El final de la temporada fue el 28 de agosto la fiesta de la Madre de Holly con las manadas del ganado homed y el 21 de septiembre la fiesta de la Virgen María con las ovejas. Prácticamente se depende de las condiciones climáticas (la fusión de la nieve y así sucesivamente). Incluso ahora, la planificación de la expedición es importante tener en cuenta la posibilidad de contactar con los pastores y una compra lácteos frescos. Y la posibilidad de vista de los paisajes con ganado vivo vigilados por perros. Durante el viaje, ten cuidado con los perros, especialmente en las montañas Mormarosky. Yo soy también es posible pasar la noche en refugios que los pastores.
Las granjas Hutsul son diversos y en diferentes condiciones. Por lo general, la única construcción permanente es una cabaña llamada staya. Muchos de ellos se puede encontrar en Chornohora en claro Gropa bajo Pip Ivan, un paraje de Serelivka bajo Petros, en Gadzhina, en Holovcheska y claros Pechenizhska. Las otras partes de la finca son refugios temporales llamadas zastoyki y recintos para el ganado ovino y okoly koshary llamados y utilizados para el ordeño de la oveja llamada strunki. A veces, hay más refugio primitivo sin ventanas y estufa llamado kolyba. Después de la II Guerra Mundial soviéticos construyeron una serie de grandes granjas industriales. Las ruinas de las granjas se encuentran en Rohniska y claros Zhumniska en la parte occidental de Chornohora. Muchos se pueden encontrar en Hryniavsky y las montañas Chyvchynsky – bajo Chyvchyn, Ledeskul o Stokh, y en Svydovets, en los que están Stara (Stare). A veces no se puede encontrar una gran cantidad de establos pequeños llamados korivnyky como en Chornohora o Kukul.
Durante el siglo XX, especialmente en tierras Hutsul Había existido algunos Dairys públicos y estaciones experimentales. En 1899, en claro Pozhuzhevska en Chornohora se estableció la Estación Botánica y Agricultura como una rama de la botánica del Estado y de la estación agrícola en Lviv. La lechería moderna primero fue abierto en Dzembronia antes de la guerra. Algunos Dairys públicas fueron construidas ya que debido a las decisiones gubernamentales húngaras 1906. Se encuentra en la parte occidental de Chornohora en Menchul claros Kvasovsky, Shumneska, Rogneska y Kinets. La granja gubernamental en claro Shumneska contaba con 260 vacas en 1914.
El sistema de transporte se basa en las formas locales llamadas juego. A través del juego siguen siendo los productos lácteos están entregando a los pueblos y las ciudades más al Justo antes de la Segunda Guerra Mundial juego a través de la Chornohora Occidente bajo Petros y Sheshul fue construido.
Después de la Primera Guerra Mundial checoslovacos y polacos continuaron las Transcarpathians la producción lechera y svayceraye funcionaban en Menchul Kvasovsky, donde se pueden encontrar sus ruinas, y claros Rohnynska. La lechería en claro Rohnynska pudo, en los años veinte, hizo que los productos de 70 mil litros de leche por año, asimismo, la leche en Svydovets. Otro de los productos lácteos se construyó en las montañas Marmarosky sobre Petros-Gryn claro. En la parte norte de Chornohora en claro Pozhyzhevska la granja estatal existía, y en las montañas Hryniavsky bajo Khust otro lácteo.
En 1945, en Rohnanska y Menchul soviéticos Kvasovsky claros declarar campos propios. En 1949, la granja experimental Dzhordzheva Preluka bajo Menchul Kvasovsky se inició. Desde 1952, todos los claros declarada estaban a cargo de las granjas estatales llamados kolhosp. Había también algunas granjas comunitarias llamados radhosp, que poseían más vacas y ovejas que el estado allí.
Desde el fin de la era del comunismo, los viejos terratenientes y sus sucesores restaurar las explotaciones familiares con vacas y ovejas, pero sobre todo vacas. En el Transcarpathians, Hutsuls todavía tiene más rebaños de ovejas que vacas. Incluso ahora utilizan los métodos de cultivo naturales, muy primitivas y anticuadas. Los pastores viven en refugios temporales llamadas zastayky y trasladarse de un lugar a otro con sus rebaños. Ellos vagabundo llamado vatra la chimenea, y como en el pasado se logró la producción vurda por vatah. Los árboles jóvenes y arbustos se eliminan, lo que ayuda en el crecimiento excesivo claros. A veces, la tierra es quemada, lo que está fuera de la ley, sino que sucede incluso en los parques nacionales como el Parque Nacional de los Cárpatos o las Reservas de Biosfera Cárpatos.
A largo plazo la economía agrícola Hutsul se ha cambiado el entorno en las montañas. Los pinos de montaña enanos fueron eliminados completamente de la biosfera allí. El bosque de abetos es muy limitada sólo a Svydovets o Chornohora oeste. Baja bosque consista, o bien de árboles de arce o haya, árboles-. El claros se llenan de los cobertizos unidos por las rutas denominadas juego. Las granjas arruinadas y claros son de hierba y el bosque es cada vez mayor en las pasturas viejas. Estos paisajes se pueden encontrar en Hrynavsky y las montañas Chyvchynsky. Un desarrollo rural, se requiere Hutsul y tratar de promover la región con el festival Hutsulska brynza (Hutsul brynza), que ayuda a apoyar los productos locales y animar a visitar la tierra. El número de ovejas en el oeste de Chornohora se estima alrededor de 3 mil, pero es difícil tener ganancias allí. La economía no trata de mantener el equilibrio, no sólo ambiental, sino también ayuda a mantener la dieta saludable entre la población local.
En cuanto a los turistas que parece ser una época antigua conservada en el campo de tierra Hutsul. La atmósfera tiene su propio sabor único y muy fresco en el presente siglo.[/tab] [tab name=’Magic of the glades’]
At late 19th century animals breeding played the most important role in the Hutsul economy. Hutsul bred the sheep (vivtsi), goats, cows (marzhyna), pigs (svyni) and horses. Several months a year the animals were fed far away from home villages on the glades. A special group of society was prepared for that task. They built their own folk culture, which could have been found in their rituals, ceremonials and legends and songs.
It was very difficult to become a good shepherd. The candidate had to be a strong enough, brave and experienced. The weather and the climate conditions of the mountains were very bad. There were infections and diseases attacking people and animals. And other people – robbers and outlaws, who steal the animals and the goods. Also wild animals were dangerous hunting for a food. Hence, the magic played an important role in everyday life of shepherds. All the magical beliefs and orders had to be sufficient for rescue of the herd and proper diary and meat production.
A landlord or a tenant (deputat) traditionally had reached the agreement with vatag, who resided on the glade and was responsible for the herd and dairy products. Vatag managed the herds and the shepherds, also prepared the food, and at the end of term he returned the herds to the owners. In the spring vatag announced the pasturage (vesnuvannya) and the day of milking and payment. It had happened after the church prayers. Vatag was the owner of all the equipment employed in the diary making. He was also a physician and a magician. This profession was inherited from generation to generation.
Vatag employed the shepherds. The shepherd should have been responsible and able to work in a team. There were diverse responsibilities of the shepherds. A vivchar guarded the sheep. There was one vivchar over a hundred milky sheep. A yelocher (yegnychnyk) was responsible for young sheep and rams. Korovar (haydey) was in charge of homed cattle, bovhar guarded the oxen, and telecher – the calves. Kozyar was in charge of goats, svynar guarded the pigs, and stadyar – the horses. There were some assistants on the glade called gonilnyky. They supplied water and timber, keep the fire and did other items. They were also called spuzhary (spuza means ash).
Sometimes, a young boy was engaged as a helper called strunkar (zagoyennyk), who assisted during the milking. At night the guard called nichnyk, bum the hearth called vatra, and using a horn warned the other team members. Vatag employed also his deputies called starshy vivchar. The shepherds were paid by cash and goods. They also got the livelihood for whole season. Vatag and starshy vivchar received a pair of leather shoes for a month and could have kept their own part of herd free of charge.
A part of a glade was the pasture (pasovysko), the other was a meadow (kizhnytsa).
The water was supplied via wooden pipes called churil from the well or a spring. The farm (stoyishche) was fenced with wooden perches called varynnya. The pasture was shifted moving the perches from time to time and fertilize the soil. Sheep lived in koshery, and cattle in zahorody.
The wooden shelter called kolyba (staya) consisted of the entrance room (piddashya), vatarnyk (vaternyk) and a chamber. In the middle of vatarnyk the hearth called vatra burnt all the time. Along the walls on the benches all the equipment was kept. In the chamber the food and all dairy products were stored. Near the wall the wooden verkluh (vertluh) arm for the kettle was set. In some of the farms, the huts called zhymarky were built. Inside there was a stable in which the animals were kept to the winter.
The shelter of a cooper (budnar) was a part of a farm. During the season the cooper produced and repaired the wooden objects used on the spot.
The animals were protected in the shelters built by deputat or vatag. The fences were made of the wood. Marry times they saved the animals lives. In the heart of the enclosure there was a shed called stayka (zastayka). Inside the shepherd spent every night. In front of a shed the fire was burnt. The sheep shelter had a place for milk milking called strunka (strunga). In the cattle shelter there was a crib with fresh hay. Sometimes there was another enclosure in the see-through forest, especially during the hot summer time. The part of the glade was separated and here hay was stored in stacks. Later on, it was used during the cold weather for animals feeding.[/tab] [tab name=’Before the season’]
The season was opened between May 7th and June 2nd. The horns of the shepherds were informed about it. The time of leading the herds from the villages to the glades is called Polonynsky Khid. The crofters in special way prepared their herds to the season. In some feasts they had not worked and had a fast. In the day of Svatogo Yuria (St George May 6th), the shepherd protector, they prayed in the intension of a good and safe season. At the day of Svatogo Matviya (St Mathews, August 9th) and St Catharine (December 7th), the crofters played in the intension of saving the cattle against the influence of the weasel, which was able to make the cow loose the milk or even kill the cow. At the day of svatogo Lupa (Lupula, August 23rd), the intension was to protect the animals against the wolves. At the day of the Holy Cross (September 11th), they prayed in the intension of protection against the snakes. In the day of svatogo Spirydona (December 14th), the shepherd prayed about the protection their herds against the wild animals. An exceptional was rakhmansky velykden, on Wednesday four weeks after the Easter.
That day the crofters fed animals before the sunrise with the boiled eggs to had a good health and protect against them the spell. People had eaten their food after the sunset. The same intention was in the first Didova Subota (Saturday) before Whitsuntide. That day they brought to the church as a gift first diary prepared after the winter and afterwards, they gave it to the poor.
A week after the day of Teploho Aleksiya (St Alex, March 29th), they cut the wool of the sheep. The kids took the fleece to the house taking care of not mixing the fleece from lambs, young sheep and older sheep. They believed that the mixing could had caused the skin disease. At the day of Blagovishchennya (Holy Virgin Annunciation April 7th) crofter cut the wool of every sheep near the genital organs. That day he had to prepare the thread and the rope from that wool. In the day of Polonynsky Khid, he knotted the rope on his naked body around his belly believed that the sheep would had a good and safe season. As a protection against the bad energy the sheep and the goats received a red wooden strip knotted on the ear and the cattle a red wooden strip knotted on the tale, while a crofter mourned an oath. Several days before set off to the mountains a crofter early after the sunrise, sitting on the stable door sill, broke the pieces of salt mourning an oath with the sign of cross over the salt. Afterwards, he fed the animals with salted food. This protected the animals against the loosing of the milk.[/tab] [tab name=’The way to the glades’]
The crofters, who had the animals fed on the same glade called mishanyky. Before the move with their herds on the glade, they had to fix the date in advance. The set off should not had been on Friday the feast. That day all the crofters and shepherds had a fast and had not drink an alcohol.
Early after the sunrise the crofter had prayed about his animals (marzhyny). Then, he went to the stable and asked the animals, whether they had a good sleep.
The sheep got the wax to eat to keep the herd together and get a lot of milk (it means worked as bees), and fodder with powdered wasp nest to be spiky like a wasp guaranteed the sheep to fetch a good food. Before the sheep had left a crofter stayed naked in a door and counted them walking between his legs. When the last one left he said the wish not to spell his sheep by someone else as it was impossible to spell his pants.
As far as the cattle are concerned a crofter prepared a garland from the leaves on the corncob and wrapped around the neck to protect against the sorcery and unite of the healthy herd.
In front of the farm, where the animals had spent last night the fire or the torch was burnt. The owner threw a sickle and a scythe (to protect against the spell) as well as a key of the chamber (to shut the jaws of the predators) to the fire. The animals had walked through the fire, while a crofter mourned the spells. After that the cattle had to eat blessed salt and were incensed by the herbs stolen from the church. The herbs were mixed with the burning woods place in a new pot. The new one due to the aspect to the herbs. The pot was put in a front of each cattle and a crofter spoke to the cattle. Then he sprinkled some drops of water blessed M church during the Jordan feast (January 19th) and praised the cattle. Then he hid the stick, which was used to move the cattle in a stable in order to wait for their happy returning.
Afterwards, the herd was moved to the route and the trip to the glade begun. It took even a couple of days so they moved spending the songs and spending the nights on farms they went across.[/tab] [tab name=’Litovyshche’]
Prior to the new season vatag, deputat and some shepherds moved on the glade to prepare everything. Later on, the rest of shepherds with herds and the equipment came.
Vatag took off his hat entering the glade and prayed. Then, he hit the axe into the wall and threw the horseshoe into the old ashes. After that he burnt a new fire (zhyva vatra) with old fashioned way in order to have luck for whole season. Mixing some burning ashes with water, vatag prepared a mixture, which was used as a remedy for all the problems of body and soul. 14btra had burnt for whole season; otherwise it could have been a bad sign.
Vatag brushed all the stables on the glade to brush out all bad luck. Then, he waited for a herd burning the fire in the entrance. The animals went through the gate and the fire to be sharp as flames are. Meanwhile, vatag mourned the spells. Also people walked through the fire.
The season was expected to be good when an eagle was seen over the glade. On the other hand the season was anticipated bad when the ravens were observed. First night was spent by all the people on the glade in simple shelters.
The oldest shepherd burnt the fire at front of his shelter and all shepherds prayed and mourned the spells. They burnt the fires at the front of their shelters and slept with faces directed to the east.
The following day was magically as important as the first day on the jade. Vatag went to strynga – place for milking the milk and mourned another spells During the milking vatag threw a garlic to the barrels against the snakes, while he hit with his knife nine times at the bottom of the barrel. After the milking all the shepherds washed their hands and kept the water in one vessel wishing to have animals as a one herd. Then they prayed and took the herd to the pasture.
Moving out from the shelters the animals passed old chain, knife or scythe. Vatag sprinkled them with water from the vessel to preserve the animals against the misfortune and iron tools guaranteed good health and fit.
The milk milked for the first time was taken to the shed in silence, which should not have been broken. The milk was drunk by the shepherds with hope for good season.
One of the important steps was to prepare special dish called zhyr to eat by animals. It consisted of the dust of dry caterpillars of butterfly Cnethocampa pinivora mixed with salt.
At the noon, all the shepherds ate the first cheese made from the morning milk. During the first day, the owners milked their animals and fell the wooden vessel called mitruk (ca 1 liter). Meanwhile, vatag counted the number of vessels filled on a wooden stick. The stick cut into two pieces kept both vatag (koloda) and the crofter. Later on, it helped in accountings. Even if the animal was eaten the next day by a predator. The crofters never add the water to the milk because they believed that in such a way the herd would have been easier attacked by the predators.
At the end the animals of different owners were getting together and every kind was separated.[/tab] [tab name=’Pasturage’]
The milking was performed three times a day with special wooden tools called diynytsi.
A typical day begun at about 3 a.m. with words obuvayte-si (take your shoes on). The milking started by words davayte diynytsi (give me the udder). It happened with silence. It started with sheep, then after half an hour the cows were milked. The animals with dark colors were milked first. Every cow was called its name to give more milk and every time the shepherds washed their hands. It was not allowed to heat the hands.
The milk was stored in wooden barrel called putera, in which a powdered stomach of a calf or lamb was added. The barrel was warmed on the fire and milk was curdled. A cheese was mixed by wooden tool called butelev, and then dried in a cloth under the roof as a bundz.
A whey was warmed in another pot (kotel) with some milk. As a result another low fat cheese called vurda was prepared. The remaining part of the whey was called zhentytsa. The cheese was cut into pieces and stored in wooden pots compressed by special stick called bray, thick from one end and cut with teeth from the other. From the milk the sour milk was prepared (huslenka, huslanka). On some farms, only from cow milk, butter was made.
The sheep after the evening milking were moved to the pasture called pohirnyk, where the very dense grass and saffron were growing. They helped the sheep to have a lot of milk, but the sunset was magically dangerous.
All the time on the glade the shepherds were kept the magical rules. Especially, they observed other wild animals such as reptiles or lizards or frogs, which could had been dropped by witches or daemons.
Two weeks after, a magical ritual was performed. On the glade, vatag stuck an axe in the soil. Then he put some salt on and around the axe. The shepherds forced the sheep in the direction of the axe. While the sheep ate the salt, vatag shot with the gun and sheep escaped. Vatag wished to had the same reactions to the sheep every dangerous time. Then, the turf from that place was taken to the shed and kept. Afterwards, one of the shepherds three times ran naked around the herd with burning torch and shouted a magical charm.
The weather was one of the most important things. A lot of magical charms were prayers talked upside down with the cross sign made in the other way in order to get rid of bad weather.
The place where somebody had died suddenly called ksorovyshche was omitted by the shepherds as a dangerous one.
But the most dangerous magically was the curse put by someone. Especially when the animals stopped milking. It was possible by finding a reptile and a toad and burnt them in the pot, then dried and powdered. The powder should have been left on the animals paths. As far as the cows are concerned, it was possible sculptured the cow with Is We and stuck that knife in the soil, exactly in the same place, where the cows were milked. When the animal was sick or lost the milk, the only magical way to recovered it was to prepare the dough-nuts from the Easter palm and gave them to it. Sometimes, a balm made from garlic, urine and tar was effective. Of course, with magical formula whispered.
Another magical procedure was employed when an animal lost the milk. Water was collected from nine sources and taken to the shelter with no look back. Then, the timber from nine different kinds of wood was chopped. It was done lying on the ground and creeping to the shelter. Later on, two shepherds bum the fire with all the timber. After that the live embers were taken out of fire in the reverse order as the timber was given in and added to the water. Next, strunga was sprinkled with that water and the animals were washed. The remaining part was thrown away in a secret and safe place.
During the season on holidays the owners visited the shepherds on the glade and brought them food and drinks. Until St Peter and Paul (July 11th) the shepherds were not visited by women. After that date they were not allowed to come to the animals’ shelters. At the day of St Elias (Hromovy den, June 13th) the shepherds visited the churches and prayed for a good weather without the thunderstorms and hail.[/tab] [tab name=’Leaving the glades’]
The season for the cattle was ended after the day of the feast of Holly Mother – Persha Bogorodytsya, Uspinnya Bogorodytsi (August 28th) and for sheep after the feast of the Virgin Mary – Drugoyi Bogorodytsi (September 21st). A week or two in advance, vatag informed the crofters when he had planned to divide the herds. The crofters again built the shelters and spent a night. After that, they returned home. The shepherd with their own herds spent last days on the glade doing the farm and vatag packed all the equipment and waited for the fire went down. It was not allowed to put out the burning fire because the man who did it would die soon. The shelters were locked and the glade was left. Nobody returned there, because the lonely shelters were visited by ghosts called mara, who guarded the farm but also would burn the farm if the magical procedure was not performed. People returned to the glade in the next season and everything started all over again.[/tab] [end_tabset]