Carpathian Nature Parks
The history of environmental protection of the Carpathians
The early attempts to prevent the damage of nature in Hutsul land took place in late 17th and early 18th century. It was Kuziy wilderness forest on the southern east Svydovets range, which comes to Tysa on the slopes of Tempa mountain. The forest had to be protected due to the hunting purposes. The beginning environmental protection happened in early 20th century. Yulian Brunytsky, who was a member of parliament of Galicia and a baron, during his speech in a parliament on November 15th, 1910, suggested to create at least two large and several minor reserves in the mountain as well as a protection of the oldest trees.
The oldest forests had been protected by Hungarian administration just before the World War i.e. 1912-14. The reserve of the area of 130 ha had been established on the southern east Goverla slopes.
Two professors of the Academic School of Forestry had prepared a project of reserve on the northern-east Chornogora mountain near Vorokhta. The idea of such a reserve arose in Lviv among Galician Forestry Society and Copernicus Nature Society members. It was a good example of the cooperation of Ukrainian and Polish foresters.
After the World War, on September 15th 1919 Polish government established the act of the environmental protection. Among the species listed in the act there were Carpathian plants Rhododendron myrtifolium and Clematis alpina. In the same time the government prepared a list of 6 national parks included Chornogora range.
L in 1921, professor Sokolovsky initiated a reserve of the old forest in Chornogora (140 ha) and high mountains meadows around Dantsizh (307,5 ha).
In the same time the Botanical and Agricultural Station in Chornogora re-opened and the peat-bog between Breskul and Pozhuzhevska became a natural reserve.
In 1926 the annual journal “Ochrona przyrody” published a paper about the protection of Hutsul mountains titled Chornogora as a natural reserve. The paper suggested some tourist regulations and restrictions in order to protect local relicts of nature.
In 1929, the ministry of agriculture extended the reserves up to 900 ha. Meanwhile, Vorokhta forestry started to cultivate Dantsizh slopes and reintroduction of dwarf mountain pines devastated by local industry. Two factories produced the oil from the pines between 1914 and 1931 on Dantsizh slopes and on Maryzhevska glade. Both of them were suddenly destroyed. One was flooded in September 1928; the other was dosed down after the enormous snow fall.
In 1927, during the 9th general assembly of the State Environment Protection Council Professor Szafer pointed out the need of the environmental co-operation between Poland and Czechoslovakia in the order to establish the international nature park in Chornogora. The idea was a continuation of the Polish- Czechoslovak an environmental cooperation initiated in 1924 and leaded by Valeriy Goetel and Karl Domin. The resolution of the assembly proposed an international cooperation of Polish, Czechoslovakia and Romania in order to establish the nature park in the surroundings of Pip Ivan, Stog and Chyvchyn. Unfortunately, the idea was not continued.
In early 1937, the act of initiation of local Environmental Protection Committees was published. Lviv Committee controlled four regions: Lviv region, Stanislaviv region, Ternopil region and Volyn region.
In 1936-39 the reserve of Zaroslak, Homuta and Velyka Maryzhevska was enlarged and proposed Chornogora Natural Park had 1534.26 ha. Moreover, Pozhyzhevska and Dantsich glade were partially protected and the pasturage there was under control of the Botanical and Agricultural Station.
Professor Bogumyl Pavlovsky after his methodical research performed in Chyvchynbsky mountains in 1930-ties proposed four natural reserves:
1) Gnytytsa – Palyanytsa – Komanova;
2) marsh on the pass between Hlystovaty and Preluki;
3) Rotundula glades and forest;
4) Morkuniv Kamin, and more than 20 partially reserved areas. But once again the voice of the science was not loud enough.
In the meantime, Czechoslovakian scientists broadened the Zakarpathian reserves and a complete southern west Chornogora nature reserve had more than 320 ha. In parallel, Kevel valley on the western slope of Petros was environmentally protected. In 1936, two reserve on Svydovets – Blyzhnytsa and Dragobrat reserve, and Kutsy wilderness were set up. Another four were planned: Petrosul and Lazishchyna”, Turkul”, “Gutyn Tomnatyk” and „Chorna Gora”.
In 1940 Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic government proposed two large reserves: „Chornogora” (68000 ha) and “Gorgany” (50000 ha).
On March 15th, 1949 Soviet ministry of forestry industry marked old forests in the higher part of Prut as a very exclusive (3600 ha). But they were still cut out and finally in 1955, Stanislaviv region authorities decide to protect the whole higher part of Prut river.
On the November 12th, 1968 west Ukrainian Carpathian National Reserve was established by the act of the authorities of Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic government. It consisted of 12 672 ha. Chornogora part had 7938 ha, while west Gorgany part near Uholka had 4734 ha.
In 1980-81, the Carpathian National Natural Park (KNPP) was established from 32 natural reserves. It consists of area of 50300 ha with northern-east Chornogora, southern east Gorgany, and northern west Pokutian Carpathians along Prut river up to Yaremche.
In 1988, into the Carpathian National Reserve in Chornogora added 8000 ha. Nowadays, there are three elements of the reserve – 11286 ha of reserves, 27304 ha of limited reserves and 11713 ha of other areas. There are more than 1000 species in the parte with 85 of them reported in the “Red Book of Ukraine”, i.e. completely protected and vanishing. As far as animals are concerned, there are 48 kinds of mammals, 110 kinds of birds, 11 kinds of fish, 10 kinds of reptiles and 6 kinds of amphibians. 32 kinds of them are noted in the “Red Book of Ukraine”.
In 1993, the Carpathian Reserve of Biosphere (KRB) has been established; it consists of Chornogora range as well as the ridge from Rohnyska to Goverla and farther to Turkul. In 1997 KRB has been extended by Svydovets with Blyzhnytsa and Dragobrat, “Kuziy” wilderness and the upper part of Krasny valley in Marmaroski mountains. At the moment, in Zakarpatian part or Hutsul land, there are 4 parts of KRB: Chornogora part – 15369 ha Svydovets part – 8687 ha, Kuziy part – 4852 ha and Marmaroski part – 8492 ha. In 2002, there have been created four functional zones of KRB;
1) protection zone;
2) transition zone;
3) anthropogenic zone;
4) partial protection zone.
The KRB has at least 800-850 species. Among them, 80 are noted in the “Red Book of Ukraine”. In Chornogora and Svydovets there areabout 60 species in Marmaroski part at least 40 and the smallest number in Kuziy part.
Since 1997, the Carpathian Reserve of Biosphere has included several smaller reserves: Kevelivsky with 320.1 ha and Rognesky with 30 ha (est. 1974), “Zatinky i Teresyanky” (est. 1978) with 13 ha, Brebeneskul lake and “Rododendron” (est. 1969) with 2.5 ha existing on the southern west slopes of Pip Ivan in Chornogora. Since 1990, the High Mountains Biological Station of Lviv University is a reserve.
“Skaly Blyznytsi” reserve with 30 ha, has become a part of KRB in Svydovets (est. 1975). It has a unique limestone flora with Antennaria carpatica, Gentiana nivalis, Hedysamm hedysaroides, Astragalus australis krajinae and more.
Gorgany Natural Reserve has been established in 1996. It is based on two reserves „Durdynets” and „Sadky” (5344.2 ha). It is located in Dovbushanka range (1754 m) and consists of the Arolla pine (Pirns cembra) forests. There is more than 150 kinds of animals, including 47 kinds of mammals with Sorex alpinus, Chionomys nivalis, Lutra lutra, Felis silvestris, Lynx lynx. There are 85 kinds of birds with black stork (Ciconia nigra), the eagle (Aquila pomarina), and Bubo bubo. There are 8 kinds of amphibians with salamander (Salamandra salamandra) and Triturus montandoni and Tritums alpestris. There are also 10 kinds of fish and 6 kinds of reptiles. There are 22 kinds of animals and 22 kinds of species noted in the „Red Book of Ukraine”. Especially, some kinds of orchids are very exceptional.
Vyzhytsky Natural Park has been established in 1995 (7928.4 ha). It is located in Bukovino-Pokutian Carpathians in Vyzhnytsky and Berehometsky forestry. It has 2087.2 ha in protection zone, 4886.8 ha in transition zone, 8.6 ha of anthropogenic zone and 9458 ha of partial protection zone. There are 621 kinds of species including 221 kinds of moss, 51 kinds of mushrooms. There are 127 kinds of birds, 7 kinds of amphibians, 11 kinds of reptiles. There are 4 kinds of species noted by the „Bern Convention” and 8 kinds of exceptional animals noted in European Red Book.
National Natural Park „Hutsulshchyna” has 32271 ha in Pokutian Carpathians near Kosiv (est. 2002). It has about 60 hydrological and geological dements. It is mostly focus on the landscape protection. Among the exceptional plants there can be noted Arnica Montana, and Colchium autumnale. As far as animals are concerned there are salamander (Salamandra salamandra) and viper (Vipera berus) and some birds and mammals. At the moment the area of 1706 ha is under the park administration.
Zakarpatian part of Hutsul land has another 2 smaller reserves -„Apzhynetsky hydrological reserve” (est. 1974) near Chorna Tysa springs on Okole pass and and northern slopes of Svydovets and botanical reserve „Dowhhy Potik” (est. 19751) with 75 ha of yew (Taxus baccota).
In the northern-west part of Hutsul land is a botanical reserve „Taupishyrka” with 424 ha (est. 1974). There are spruce forests with Arolla pine (Pinus cembra) part located near Bystrytsa. There are 5 kinds of species noted in the „Red Book of Ukraine”. Among them there is Oxycoccus microcarpus.
“Chorny Dil” is a landscape reserve with area of 263 ha (est. 1980). It is located in the southern east of Hutsul land between Seret and Bily Cheremosh in Marmaroski mountains. The reserve is located on the limestone on which several unique species can be found. 10 of them is noted in the “Red Book of Ukraine” with edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum.) and Aquilegia transsilvanica.
“Urochyshche Tarnytsi” is a botanical reserve with area of 62 ha (est. 1975). It is located near Mykulychyn. It is established in order to rescue a relict pine forest.
“Hlystovate Boloto” is hydrological reserve (est. 1975) in Chyvchynski mountains with 0.5 ha. It can be found on the southern slope of Hlystovata glade near Burkut. It is established in order to save a unique peat bog with some species such as Saussurea porcii, Carex paniculata, Iris sibirica.
The Forest Park „Vysokogirny” (est. 1967) has the area of 100 ha. It is located near Bystrytsa in Gorgany. In 1983, the park became a reserve with 200 kinds of trees and hedge plants.
As far as the history of environmental protection is concerned, the hard work of several generations of biologists from Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine and former Soviet Union created today’s condition of Hutsul mountains and their future perspective. A lot of work has been done in order to protect Chornogora environment fewer in Svydovets and Marmaroski mountains and last but not least the fewest in Grynavski mountains.
There is still a lot to do. In the nearest future a part of Neneska and Stog area will be protected as well as a fragment of Blyznytsa in Svydovets. Then we hope that some Petros slopes and Gadzhina cirque as well as Kutsy Ulog cirque in Chornogora will become reserves. But still sheep are pastured there. Those steps will be the following small steps in a huge work on the protection of a priceless environment of Hutsul land.
Pictures of the Carpathian National Nature Park. Green Ukraine